Judicial System of the USA

The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the United States and the head of the judicial branch.

The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the USA and such a number of Associate Justices as may be fixed by Congress. Power to nominate the Justices is vested in the Judicial System of the USA President of the United States, and appointments are мейд by and with the advice and consent of the

Senate. The appointments are мейд for life, that is, a Justice cannot be dismissed from his/her post. A Justice may if he/she so desires, retire at the Judicial System of the USA age of 70 after serving 10 years as a Federal Judge, or at the age of 65 after 15 years of service. The Supreme Court has the right to declare unconstitutional any law passed by Congress, or any order issued by the President.

The USA is divided into 13 federal judicial circuits, each one being served Judicial System of the USA with a court of appeals known as the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit. Included in these 13 judicial circuits is the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia and the Court of Appeals for the

Federal Circuit.

There are about 90 district courts in the USA. Each Judicial System of the USA state is comprised of one or more federal judicial districts, and in each district there is a district court. The United States district courts are the trial courts with general Federal jurisdiction over cases involving federal laws or offenses and actions between citizens of different states. Each state has Judicial System of the USA at least one district court. There is also a United States district court in the District of Columbia. Only one judge is usually required to hear and decide a case in a district court, but in some kinds of cases it is required that three judges be called together to Judicial System of the USA comprise the court. In districts with more than one judge, the judge senior in commission who has not reached his seventieth birthday acts as the chief judge.


• модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты,

• времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future) в активном залоге

• времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future) в активном и Judicial System of the USA пассивном залоге.

Сделайте последующие упражнения:

I.Переведите последующие предложения, обращая внимание на видо-временную форму глагола.

1. Why are you leaving so soon? - I'm hurrying to the University. I attend the meetings of the English Club on Fridays. 2. I've already done my shopping and now Judicial System of the USA I'm cooking dinner. 3. She takes her little daughter to the kindergarten every day. 4. Somebody left the light on all night. 5. They are going to get married. 6. He is often seen in the library of the University. 7. They had packed their suitcases before I came. 8. I'm afraid we'll Judicial System of the USA be late if we don't hurry. 9. The letter has just been typed. 10. He never misses his English classes as he is going to London soon and wants to speak English very well. 11. Will you be through with your exam in an hour? 12. These houses were built more than Judicial System of the USA 25 years ago. 13. Were you getting ready for your exam all day long yesterday? 14. The translation will have been done by Monday. 15.English is spoken

in many countries of the world. 16. I've already passed all the exams and I’m leaving for my native town tonight. 17. The articles had been translated and Judicial System of the USA typed by last Tuesday.

II.Прочитайте и переведите последующие предложения:

1. You can and you must do this work. 2. There will be no meeting after classes. You may go home. 3. May I take this book home? - I'm afraid not. 4. You needn't take a bus. You Judicial System of the USA can walk there. It's not far from here. 5. There are little children in the room. You mustn't smoke here. 6. Did you have to translate the text in writing? - No, I didn't. 7.He has to get up rather early as he lives far from the University. 8. She had Judicial System of the USA to stay at home yesterday because she was ill. 9. He is to make a report at the conference. 10. He needn't go to the library, I can give him the book he

needs. 11. You should be more attentive in class. 12. Kate is in hospital. You ought to go to see her. 13. I Judicial System of the USA hope they will be able to speak English fluently soon. 14. Ann is still very weak. She won't be allowed to leave home. 15. He'll have to work hard to be able to pass all exams successfully. 16. Mr. Smith is to meet the delegation at the airport Judicial System of the USA. 17. I couldn't go for a walk yesterday as I had to do much work about the house. 18. We are to take five tests and four exams in January. 19.Must she water the garden? - No, she needn't, it looks like rain. 20. May I smoke

here? - No, you mustn't.

III.Прочитайте и переведите Judicial System of the USA последующие предложения:

1. I can't tell you the time. I've left my watch somewhere. 2.There is no point in asking him to help us. He's sold his car and hasn't yet bought a new one. 3. Have you ever been to the USA? - Not Judicial System of the USA yet. 4. She's done the translation, and now she's going home. 5. We haven't met him since we finished school. 6. They've lived in Serov since they graduated from the University. 7. Have you seen them lately? - Unfortunately not. 8. Has she already passed all the exams? - Yes, she has. She has Judicial System of the USA passed them with good and excellent marks. 9. Who has written out the new words from the text? - Everybody has. 10. I'm glad to meet you. - So am I. I haven't seen you for ages.

IVОтветьте на последующие приказания по модели:

Model:Open the window! - But I've Judicial System of the USA already opened it.

1. Water the flowers! 2. Cut the bread! 3. Dust the furniture! 4. Take the books to the library! 5. Translate Text 2 on Page 54! 6. Write out new words from the text! 7. Learn the poem by heart! 8. Buy a good dictionary! 9.Wash your hands! 10. Send her photo to him! 11. Read the article! 12. Listen to Judicial System of the USA the latest news!

VНайдите верный ответ:

1. Participle II правильных глаголов появляется с помощью:

a) -ing b) -ed c) -es d) -s e) –en

2. Participle II некорректных глаголов появляется с помощью:

a) -ing b) -ed c) –es

d) по различному (2-ая форма глагола)

е) по различному (3-я форма глагола)

3. Какие глаголы образуют Judicial System of the USA Participle II при помощи "-ed"?

a) to do b) to work c) to be d) to see e) to study

4. Какие глаголы образуют Participle II по различному?

a) to meet b) to ask c) to begin d) to know e) to translate

5. Present Perfect употребляется:

a) когда есть итог Judicial System of the USA законченного деяния, но время деяния не обозначено

b) со словами "already, yet, just, ever, never"

c) со словами "yesterday, last year, last month, last week, ... days (weeks, months, years) ago"

d) со словами "today, this week, this month, this year"

e) если мы спрашиваем, когда действие вышло

6. При образовании Perfect Judicial System of the USA смысловой глагол должен быть в форме:

a) Participle I (writing, opening)

b) Infinitive with "to" (to write, to open)

c) Participle II (written, opened)

d) Infinitive without "to" (write, open)

e) Past Indefinite (wrote, opened)

7. Вспомогательным глаголом для образования времен Perfect служит:

a) to do b) to be c) to Judicial System of the USA have d) to get d) to become

8. Найдите инфинитив в Perfect Active:

a) to be elected b) to have elected c) to have been elected

d) to have been electing e) to be being elected

9. Найдите глаголы в Present Perfect Active:

a) is written

b) has written

c) have written

d) has been written

e) have Judicial System of the USA been written

10. Найдите предложения в Present Perfect Active:

a) I haven't heard the news yet.

b) Pete has just bought a new dictionary.

c) Ann bought a new dress yesterday.

d) Who has taken my pen?

e) Helen has been bought a new dress.

11. Какой вспомогательный глагол нужен Judicial System of the USA для последующего предложения : "We ... never been to Moscow"

a) shall b) were c) have d) has e) did

12. Найдите правильную форму глагола для последующего предложения: "He ... Ann this week"

a) didn't meet b) haven't met c) hasn't met

d) doesn't meet e) hasn't been met

13. Найдите верный вопрос к подчеркнутому Judicial System of the USA члену предложения:

"He has bought a few English books this week"

a) Who has bought a few English books?

b) What books has he bought?

c) When did he buy a few English books?

d) How many English books has he bought?

e) What has he bought Judicial System of the USA this week?

14. Найдите правильную форму глагола для последующего предложения: "She ... to her native town since 1995"

a) was not b) haven't been c) had not been

d) hasn't been e) were not

15. Найдите верный ответ к последующему вопросу: "Has your brother helped you?"

a) Yes, he did. b) Yes, he is Judicial System of the USA. c) Yes, he was.

d) Yes, he does. e) Yes, he has

VIПрочитайте и переведите последующие предложения:

1. I had studied English before I entered the University. 2. They had arrived at the station by 5 o'clock. 3. Bob had written the report by Sunday. 4.The teacher had given the pupils their home Judicial System of the USA task before the bell rang. 5. I had heard it was a good film so we decided to go and see it. 6. He felt much happier once he had found a new job. 7. Mother had cooked dinner by the time we got hungry. 8. Ann had had dinner by that Judicial System of the USA time. 9.They had sent all the invitation cards long before the wedding party. 10. The children had already fallen asleep when their parents returned home after the concert.

Прочитайте и переведите последующие тексты:

T e x t 1